Effective Teacher Education in Low-connectivity Settings

A Curated Resource List

About this report

This list curates resources — both tools and initiatives — that can be adapted to support teacher education in low-connectivity settings, a prevailing challenge in Madagascar. Tools are defined as any specific technology that can be applied to an educational challenge (e.g. an app, a learning platform, a radio or TV programme). Initiatives are the application of a tool to a particular setting (i.e. the use of an educational app in a specific country). Teacher education denotes both initial teacher education and continuous teacher professional development (TPD). Given that adapting existing initiatives to specific contexts can often be problematic, this list has outlined resources that address specific Malagasy needs within the education sector. The resources listed have either: 

  • linguistic relevance (by containing francophone elements);
  • educational relevance (by focusing on foundational literacy or maths);
  • infrastructural relevance (by identifying resources with offline functionality).

Each example will identify the challenges a resource addresses, include the necessary prerequisites for each resource to be viable, balance the pros and cons of each resource, and include details of costs and impact assessment data where possible.


The government of Madagascar has identified education as central to the country’s overall development outcomes. In 2012, an estimated 1.4 million school-aged children did not access formal education; this was the fifth largest proportion of out-of-school children in the world. Additionally, the primary completion rate stood at 66% for the 2015–16 school year (World Bank, 2018). The country’s Education Sector Plan (ESP) for 2018–2022 sets out a roadmap to improve educational outcomes in Madagascar via numerous pathways (Ministère de l’Éducation Nationale, Madagascar, 2017).

A key component of the ESP is the targeted improvement of teacher education to improve teaching practices and learning outcomes. This improvement centres on building the capabilities of the teaching workforce, almost half of whom are currently informally employed through a community-based school system. Global Partnership for Education (GPE, 2020) data shows that in 2016, for every trained teacher there were 271 primary school pupils. In 2018, just 15 per cent of primary school teachers were trained. As such, the ESP continually highlights the need to fundamentally reform teaching practice across the country (Ministère de l’Éducation Nationale, Madagascar, 2017).

Thus, this list focuses on resources that can be implemented in Madagascar to build the capacity of Malagasy teachers and ultimately enhance learning outcomes.

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