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17 EdTech Frameworks and Who Needs to Know Them

In our recent publication, A Case for a Systems Approach to EdTech, we identified 17 EdTech frameworks that provide a valuable bridge between theory and practice. Frameworks are a general outline to show the interrelationships between different subjects in the field; how the parts fit together. They help implementers see the components and connections needed to make EdTech work. These EdTech frameworks have been developed for various purposes ranging from policy-level EdTech implementation to classroom-level uptake.

Here, we list 17 of the EdTech frameworks as a resource for stakeholders throughout the EdTech ecosystem. The selection criteria for these frameworks  are described in detail in our systems position paper.

For Policy Makers: Macro-level EdTech frameworks

  • The SABER-ICT Framework is primarily intended for policymakers and governments to aid their process of designing and assessing key policies linked to the use of Information and Communication technology (ICT) in K-12 education (⇡Trucano, 2016). 
  • The UNESCO Framework provides policymakers with policy objectives to reform teacher capacity and professional development. It has been used to develop nationwide EdTech policies in Guyana, Bahrain and Russia. It can also be leveraged by teachers and teacher training experts (⇡UNESCO, 2011).
  • The Asian Development Bank Framework for policymakers provides guidance on establishing the coordination between policy direction and teacher capacity building along with a focus on infrastructure development, student learning outcomes, and private public partnerships (⇡Asian Development Bank, 2017). 
  • The PISA ICT Framework gives a complete picture on students’ access to, and use of, technology as well as their learning outcomes. It also identifies how educational institutions and teachers incorporate technology into the classroom. Through this information, it allows policymakers to explore the influence of system level factors on students and schools use of ICT. It also helps nations and individual educational institutions understand their position in comparison to others (⇡OECD, 2020).
  • The Development Framework aims to help policymakers analyse the context in their country, develop suitable goals, and coordinate policies and programmes which lead to systemic change (⇡Kozma, 2005). 

For Educational Institutions and Heads of Institutions: Meso-level frameworks 

  • E-Learning Stakeholders’ Responsibility Matrix is responsible for e-learning and aims to ensure coordination amongst stakeholders. It is designed for higher educational institutions to understand, integrate, and adapt EdTech initiatives. It highlights that each stakeholder plays a key role by outlining their key motivations and concerns (⇡Wagner et al., 2008).
  • The Holistic Integration Framework guides educational institutions and provides them with a system to improve the evaluation of student learning and enhance the education system. It can be adapted to suit the needs of varied contexts (⇡Khudair & Abdalla, 2016).
  • ICT for Education (ICT4E) is a conceptual framework which contributes to the design of activities that lead to sustainable change in pedagogical practices in schools. It focuses on the integration of technology into teaching and learning (⇡Rodríguez et al., 2012).
  • The Framework for Stakeholder Inclusion helps the heads of institutions select inclusive technology and plan for its adoption by taking into account the considerations of students, teachers, and technology leaders (⇡CoAction Learning Lab, 2019).
  • The Organisation Improvement Plan (OIP) is envisioned as an approach for educational leaders to support teachers with the integration of technology into K-12 education. Its designed is based on a systems thinking approach (⇡Chisholm, 2020).

For Teachers: Micro-level EdTech frameworks

  • The TPACK framework elaborates upon the knowledge a teacher requires to successfully incorporate technology into instruction. Its primary intended users are teachers but we hypothesise it could also be leveraged by teacher training experts (⇡Mishra, 2019).
  • The T3 framework promotes the use of EdTech by providing an actionable path for implementing EdTech and assessing the impact of innovative teaching and learning. It can be used by teachers to evaluate the use of EdTech in the classroom (⇡Magana, 2020).

For Multi-stakeholders: Multi-level EdTech frameworks 

  • The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) standards help teachers and education leaders ensure that learning is a learner-driven activity. It targets leaders, teachers, and students and aims to enhance implementation of technology and improve learning outcomes (⇡Trust, 2018).
  • The Framework for Evaluation Appropriateness of EdTech assists multiple stakeholders such as teachers, educational institutions, technology providers, policymakers, and district / state level administrators. It helps in the planning and implementation of EdTech before and during the adoption of an EdTech initiative (⇡Osterweil et al., 2016).
  • Scaling Access and Impact is an ecosystem model which caters to government stakeholders such as ministries of education, education innovations, and private philanthropic capital providers. It helps them understand their role in supporting access to and use of EdTech (⇡Omidyar Network, 2019).
  • The Adolescent Community of Engagement (ACE) Framework assists with the design and creation of adolescent online learning environments by building on four key constructs: student, teacher, peer, and parent engagement (⇡Borup et al., 2014).

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